The past decade has been a bad one for antidepressant manufacturers.
Quite apart from all the bad press these drugs have been getting lately, there's been a remarkable lack of new antidepressants making it to the market. The only really novel drugs to hit the shelves since 2000 have been agomelatine and vilazodone. There were a couple of others that were just minor variants on old molecules, but that's it. Quite a contrast from the 1990s when new drugs were ten-a-penny.
This makes "Lu AA21004" rather special. It's a new antidepressant currently in development and by all accounts it's making good progress. It's now in Phase III trials, the last stage before approval. And a large clinical trial has just been published finding that it works.
But is it a medical advance or merely a commercial one?
Pharmacologically, Lu AA21004 is kind of a new twist on an old classic . Its main mechanism of action is inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, just like Prozac and other SSRIs. However, unlike them, it also blocks serotonin 5HT3 and 5HT7 receptors, activates 5HT1A receptors and partially agonizes 5HT1B.
None of these things cry out "antidepressant" to me, but they do at least make it a bit different.
The new trial took 430 depressed people and randomized them to get Lu AA21004, at two different doses, 5mg or 10mg, or the older antidepressant venlafaxine at the high-ish dose of 225 mg, or placebo.
It worked. Over 6 weeks, people on the new drug improved more than those on placebo, and equally as well as people on venlafaxine; the lower 5 mg dose was a bit less effective, but not significantly so.
The size of the effect was medium, with a benefit over-and-above placebo of about 5 points on the MADRS depression scale, which considering that the baseline scores in this study averaged 34, is not huge, but it compares well to other antidepressant trials.
Now we come to the side effects, and this is the most important bit, as we'll see later. The authors did not specifically probe for these, they just relied on spontaneous report, which tends to underestimate adverse events.
Basically, the main problem with Lu AA21004 was that it made people sick. Literally - 9% of people on the highest dose suffered vomiting, and 38% got nausea. However, the 5 mg dose was no worse than venlafaxine for nausea, and was relatively vomit-free. Unlike venlafaxine, it didn't cause dry mouth, constipation, or sexual problems.
So that's lovely then. Let's get this stuff to market!
The big selling point for this drug is clearly the lack of side effects. It was no more effective than the (much cheaper, because off-patent) venlafaxine. It was better tolerated, but that's not a great achievement to be honest. Venlafaxine is quite notorious for causing side effects, especially at higher doses.
I take venlafaxine 300 mg and the side effects aren't the end of the world, but they're no fun, and the point is, they're well known to be worse than you get with other modern drugs, most notably SSRIs.
If you ask me, this study should have compared the new drug to an SSRI, because they're used much more widely than venlafaxine. Which one? How about escitalopram, a drug which is, according to most of the literature, one of the best SSRIs, as effective as venlafaxine, but with fewer side effects.
Actually, according to Lundbeck, who make escitalopram, it's even better than venlafaxine. Now, they would say that, given that they make it - but the makers of Lu AA21004 ought to believe them, because, er, they're the same people. "Lu" stands for Lundbeck.
The real competitor for this drug, according to Lundbeck, is escitalopram. But no-one wants to be in competition with themselves.
This may be why, although there are no fewer than 26 registered clinical trials of Lu AA21004 either ongoing or completed, only one is comparing it to an SSRI. The others either compare it to venlafaxine, or to duloxetine, which has even worse side effects. The one trial that will compare it to escitalopram has a narrow focus (sexual dysfunction).
Pharmacologically, remember, this drug is an SSRI with a few "special moves", in terms of hitting some serotonin receptors. The question is - do those extra tricks actually make it better? Or is it just a glorified, and expensive, new SSRI? We don't know and we're not going to find out any time soon.
If Lu AA21004 is no more effective, and no better tolerated, than tried-and-tested old escitalopram, anyone who buys it will be paying extra for no real benefit. The only winner, in that case, being Lundbeck - especially given that escitalopram goes off-patent in 2012...
Alvarez E, Perez V, Dragheim M, Loft H, & Artigas F (2011). A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, active reference study of Lu AA21004 in patients with major depressive disorder. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology , 1-12 PMID: 21767441